From the viewpoint of taking decisions, the distinction between statistical significance and practical or market significance must be clearly understood.
Take for example the results of a product validation test (e.g., BASES) reveal, with statistical significance, that a new formulation is likely to increase a brand’s sales by a million dollars. If the gain in sales is too small to offset the costs of introducing the new variant, then the increase is not significant enough to justify the launch of the variant.
In another example, pertaining to a retail bank, a number of initiatives targeting high-value customers, may have resulted in the reported increase in their customer satisfaction rating from 3.0 to 3.5, on a 5 point-scale. This increase suggests that the initiatives had an impact on customer satisfaction. But, if the p-value for the data is 0.1, in that case the result is not statistically significant at the usual level (α=0.05). There is a 10% chance that the difference is merely resulting from sampling error.
If the sample size is increased so that the results are statistically significant, that would increase the level of confidence that the difference is “real” and would justify the introduction of the new initiatives.
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