F1 | F2 | F3 | |

X1: Convenient location | 0.954 | -0.234 | -0.236 |

X2: Near home | 0.942 | 0.254 | 0.325 |

X3: Value for money | 0.251 | 0.723 | -0.221 |

X4: Attractive promotions | 0.124 | 0.884 | -0.251 |

X5: Low prices | -0.132 | 0.952 | 0.122 |

X6: Easy to locate items | 0.114 | 0.231 | 0.945 |

X7: Good service | -0.122 | 0.341 | 0.789 |

X8: Ease of parking | 0.181 | -0.332 | 0.678 |

X9: Efficient checkouts | 0.238 | 0.102 | 0.988 |

Factor analysis is a generic term referring to a class of statistical methods for investigating whether a number of variables of interest are linearly related to a smaller number of unobservable factors.

The prime objective of this inter-dependence technique in marketing models (e.g., models for brand equity and customer satisfaction), is to simplify the data. Based on patterns in the data, the technique summarises numerous variables into a few factors.

For example, the 9 (*n=9*) variables (attributes) in Exhibit 33.31,
are summarized as 3 (*k=3*) factors. It is assumed that each variable (*X _{1},
X_{2} … X_{n}*) is linearly related to the factors (

The error terms *e _{1}, e_{2}* etc. indicate that
these relationships are not exact.

The parameters *β _{ij}* are referred to as loadings, i.e.,

For mathematical convenience, it is assumed that the factors are in standardized
form, i.e., *E(F _{j}) = 0* and

The portion of the variance that is explained by the common factors
*∑(β _{ij}^{2})* is called the

Factor analysis methods such as principal component analysis, seek values of the loadings that bring the estimate of the total communality as close as possible to the total of the observed variances.

Variables with high loading help define the factor. For instance, as seen from
Exhibit 33.31, the variables ‘value for money’, ‘attractive
promotions’ and ‘low prices’ move in concert and are associated more strongly with
*F _{2}*. These variables that define the same factor are usually grouped under their
respective factors in shown in Exhibit 33.32.

Since loading can be interpreted like standardized regression coefficients, the
factor loading is the correlation between the variable and the factor. The variable ‘convenient
location’, for instance, has a correlation of 0.954 with factor *F _{1}*.

There often exists some common meaning among the variables that define a factor.
Factor naming is a subjective process that combines understanding of market with inspection of
variables that define the factor. For instance, in Exhibit 33.32, factor *F _{1}
*has been labelled ‘location’, since the variables that define it allude to proximity of store.

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