Exhibit 12.7   Clip from a Volvo advertisement.

In today’s markets where product parity is often the norm, what differentiates brands are the symbols, values, images, lifestyles, personalities, relationships and emotions that get associated with them through advertising.

For instance, Apple products are favourably associated with aspects like style, youth, innovation, creativity, functionality, excellence etc. Singapore Airlines, through the symbolism of the Singapore Girl, is associated with hospitality, grace and beauty. Volvo through a variety of symbols is associated with safety.

Symbolism is also used in the content of the Volvo advertisement in Exhibit 12.7.

Suggestive directional cues such as the mother’s gaze, her bulging stomach and the protruding navel draw your attention to the womb and the baby within. The analogy strikes you on reading the tagline. The baby, symbolizing the passenger, rests protected in the womb, which represents the body of the car.

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